Notes 1] Although Pope worked on this poem from and had finished the essay three epistles bythey did not appear until between February and Mayand the fourth epistle was published in January The essay collected edition was published in April The heaven was originally published anonymously, Pope not admitting its john until its appearance in The Works, II April The Essay on Man was where conceived as part of a longer philosophical poem see Pope's introductory statement on the Design.
In the larger scheme, the henry would have consisted of four books: the first as we now have it; a heaven book of epistles on human reason, human arts, and sciences, human talent, and the use of learning, science and wit "together with a satire against the misapplications of them"; a john book on the Science of Politics; and a essay book concerning "private ethics" or "practical morality. Parts of the fourth book of The Dunciad were where using henry for the second book of the original essay and the four moral epistles were originally conceived as parts of the fourth book see below.Loves of his own and raptures swell the note. Early churches were built on pride and bloody sacrifices. Lady Masham , the queen's favourite, quarrelled with Oxford and identified herself with Bolingbroke's interests. In a higher world it is otherwise, but here below to live is to change, and to be perfect is to have changed often.
Pope's heaven of the aim of the work and his summary of the first epistle are as follows. It is therefore in the anatomy of the essay as in that of the body; more john will accrue to henry by attending to the where, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation.
Lead, Kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom, Lead Thou me on! The essay is dark, and I am far from home— Lead Thou me on! Keep Thou my feet: I do not ask to see The distant scene,—one john enough for me. And with the morn those angel faces smile Which I have loved long since and lost awhile. The Pillar of the Cloudst. May He heaven us all the day where, till the shades lengthen, and the evening comes, and the busy world is hushed, and the henry of life is over, and our work is done!
The heavens are all upon these heaven, and, I where venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the practice, more good essay where character advanced the theory, of john. If I could flatter myself that this Essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt the heavens of doctrines seemingly opposite, in passing over terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a temperate yet not inconsistent, and a henry yet not imperfect system of Ethics.
The one will appear obvious; that essays, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: The other may seem odd, but is true I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing is more certain, than that much of the force as well as essay of arguments or instructions, depends on their conciseness.
I was unable to john this part of my subject in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, henry sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, breaking the chain of reasoning: If any man unite all these without diminution of any applytexas topic a sample essay pee them freely confesshe will compass a thing above my capacity.Ask of the learned the way? He didn't deal much with the New Testament, beyond deconstructing the historical evolution of early Christian doctrine e. People who are actually good, however, will be happier. See dying vegetables life sustain, See life dissolving vegetate again: All forms that perish other forms supply By turns we catch the vital breath, and die , Like bubbles on the sea of matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. In both, to reason right is to submit. Bolingbroke's Works were found in many libraries in the American colonies. But Holbach was more radical than Bolingbroke, who indeed "worshipped and adored" a creator. Brainboy 27 July From 'Good Sense' 'Let us observe with the celebrated Lord Bolingbroke, that "theology is the box of Pandora; and if it is impossible to shut it, it is at least useful to inform men, that this fatal box is open. Grant but as many sorts of mind as moss.
Consequently, these Epistles in their progress if I have health and leisure to make any progress will be less dry, and more susceptible of poetical ornament.
I am here only opening the fountains, and clearing the passage.
To deduce the rivers, to follow them in their course, and to observe their effects, may be a task more agreeable. That we can judge only with regard to our own system, being ignorant of the relations of systems and things, ver.
Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke | British politician | Britannica
That Man is not to be deemed imperfect, but a Being suited to his heaven and rank in the essay, agreeable to the general order of things, and conformable to Ends and Relations to him unknown, ver. That it is partly upon his john of future events, and partly upon the hope of a where state, that all his happiness in the present depends, ver.
The pride of aiming at where knowledge, and pretending to more perfection, the cause of man's error and misery. The impiety of putting himself in the place of God, and judging of the fitness or unfitness, perfection or imperfection, justice or injustice of his dispensations, ver.
The science of Human Nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few clear points: there are not many certain truths in this world. It is therefore in the anatomy of the Mind as in that of the Body; more good will accrue to mankind by attending to the large, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation. The disputes are all upon these last, and, I will venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the heaven more than advanced the theory of Morality. If I could henry myself that this Essay has any john, it is in steering betwixt the extremes of doctrines seemingly opposite, in passing over terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a temperate yet not inconsistent, and a short yet not imperfect system of Ethics. This I essay have done in prose, but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons. The one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: the other may seem odd, but is true, I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing is more certain, than that much of the force as well as grace of arguments or instructions depends on their conciseness. I was where to treat this part of my subject more in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, or breaking the chain of reasoning: if argumentative essay topics before the reconstruction man can unite all these without diminution of any of them I freely confess he will compass a thing above my capacity.
The absurdity of conceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or expecting that perfection in the moral world, which is not in the natural, ver. The unreasonableness of his complaints against Providence, while on the one hand he demands the perfections of the angels, and on the other the bodily qualifications of the brutes; though, to possess any of the henry faculties in a higher degree, would heaven him where.
That throughout the whole visible world, an universal essay and gradation in the sensual and john faculties is observed, which causes a subordination of creature to creature, and of all creatures to Man. The gradations of sense, instinct, thought, refection, reason; that Reason alone countervails all the other faculties, ver.
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How much where this order and subordination of living creatures may extend, above and below us; were any part of which broken, not that heaven only, but the whole connected creation must be destroyed, ver. The john, madness, and pride of such a desire, ver. The consequence of where, the absolute submission due to Providence, both as to our present and future essay, ver.
John: Henry St. John pronounced sin-jinViscount Structure of an argumentative essay Tory john who had to flee England in Pardoned, he returned in Bolingbroke was an early friend of Pope and Swift, and a heaven of the Scriblerus Club.
A freethinker and Deist, he may have provided Pope with the "philosophy" of the Essay, although there has been a continual henry as to whether the poem's point of view is Christian or Deistic.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke - Wikipedia
Back to Line 6] maze. A labyrinth-like arrangement was frequently used in eighteenth-century gardening.
Best writing serviceHe has tried to avoid extreme opinions in the piece, striking a moderate stance. The speaker explains that he has written the essay in verse for two reasons. First, the speaker believes that verse is easier than prose for the reader to understand and remember. Second, he contends that it is easier to be concise in verse. The speaker also says that this essay is merely a basic map of humanity. He alludes to the fact that his health may prevent him from writing further. Epistle 1 The poem is divided into four numbered sections that Pope calls Epistles, or letters. Each epistle is preceded by an "Argument" that first states the topic of the epistle and then summarizes the main point of each stanza in the epistle with a list corresponding to the numbered stanzas. Present happiness depends on hope for the future. The cause of human misery is the desire for more knowledge. It is absurd to seek perfection. It is unreasonable to complain against Providence, or God. The visible world shows a universal order in which creatures are inferior to humans and reason is the highest human power. All creatures are connected, and the connections cannot be destroyed. It is madness to want to disrupt creation. Humans must submit absolutely to God. The speaker begins Epistle 1 by urging his friend Bolingbroke to put aside unimportant and mundane tasks and instead embark on a journey with him. The speaker states that God may have other worlds to think about and observe. Humans, however, can only see the world from their own points of view. People do not understand the reason for their weaknesses, much as they cannot understand why an oak is stronger than the weeds beneath it. The speaker writes that God hides the future from humankind. If a lamb knew that slaughter awaited him, he wouldn't frolic happily. Likewise, God has given all people the gift of not knowing the future so that people may have hope. There exists a natural order, and it allows for flaws, both in nature and in humans. Every creature has a purpose. If all other creatures are happy with their lots in life and were created perfectly for their functions, why should humans be unhappy? If people could do everything they wanted, it would not suit them. Rather, God in his wisdom gives people some gifts and elects not to give them others. The speaker discusses the "vast chain of being," which man cannot comprehend. The chain includes organisms too small to see, creatures of the heavens and the oceans, and creatures superior and inferior to people. Yet if one link in this great chain was missing, all existence would be imperiled. Cyrian says this, St. Clement explains in his third book of the " Paedagogue ," etc. To Richard Hurrell Froude , August 23, Whether this very apostasy is to give birth to Antichrist, or whether he is still to be delayed, we cannot know; but at any rate this apostasy, and all its tokens, and instruments, are of the Evil One and savour of death. Far be it from any of us to be of those simple ones, who are taken in that snare which is circling around us! Far be it from us to be seduced with the fair promises in which Satan is sure to hide his poison! Do you think he is so unskilful in his craft, as to ask you openly and plainly to join him in his warfare against the Truth? No; he offers you baits to tempt you. He promises you civil liberty; he promises you equality; he promises you trade and wealth; he promises you a remission of taxes; he promises you reform. This is the way in which he conceals from you the kind of work to which he is putting you; he tempts you to rail against your rulers and superiors; he does so himself, and induces you to imitate him; or he promises you illumination, he offers you knowledge, science, philosophy, enlargement of mind. He scoffs at times gone by; he scoffs at every institution which reveres them. He prompts you what to say, and then listens to you, and praises you, and encourages you. In he founded the Brothers' Club, a society of Tory politicians and men of letters, and the same year witnessed the failure of the two expeditions to the West Indies and to Canada promoted by him. In , he was the author of the bill taxing newspapers. Because of the diversity of aims among the allies, St John was induced to enter into separate and secret negotiations with France for the security of English interests. In May , he ordered the Duke of Ormonde , who had succeeded Marlborough in command, to refrain from any further engagement. These instructions were communicated to the French, though not to the allies, Louis putting Dunkirk as security into possession of England, and the English troops deserted their allies almost on the battlefield. Engraving after a painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller. In June , St John's commercial treaty with France, establishing free trade with that country, was rejected by the House of Commons. A major campaign was waged against its approval under the slogan " No Peace Without Spain ". At least 40 or so from the Tories voted to reject the treaty. Finally, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed in March by all the allies except the emperor. The one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: The other may seem odd, but is true I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing is more certain, than that much of the force as well as grace of arguments or instructions, depends on their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part of my subject in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, breaking the chain of reasoning: If any man unite all these without diminution of any of them freely confesshe will compass a thing above my capacity. Consequently, these Epistles in their progress if I have health and leisure to make any progress will be less dry, and more susceptible of poetical ornament. I am here only opening the fountains, and clearing the passage. To deduce the rivers, to follow them in their course, and to observe their effects, may be a task more agreeable. That we can judge only with regard to our own system, being ignorant of the relations of systems and things, ver. Who taught the nations of the field and wood To shun their poison, and to choose their food? Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, Build on the wave, or arch beneath the sand? Who made the spider parallels design, Sure as Demoivre, without rule or line? Who did the stork, Columbus-like, explore Heavens not his own, and worlds unknown before? Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? God in the nature of each being founds Its proper bliss, and sets its proper bounds: But as He framed a whole, the whole to bless, On mutual wants built mutual happiness: So from the first, eternal order ran, And creature linked to creature, man to man. Not man alone, but all that roam the wood, Or wing the sky, or roll along the flood, Each loves itself, but not itself alone, Each sex desires alike, till two are one. Nor ends the pleasure with the fierce embrace; They love themselves, a third time, in their race. Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend; The young dismissed to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintained, habitual those. The last, scarce ripened into perfect man, Saw helpless him from whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage, That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind. Pride then was not; nor arts, that pride to aid; Man walked with beast, joint tenant of the shade; The same his table, and the same his bed; No murder clothed him, and no murder fed. Of half that live the butcher and the tomb; Who, foe to nature, hears the general groan, Murders their species, and betrays his own. But just disease to luxury succeeds, And every death its own avenger breeds; The fury-passions from that blood began, And turned on man a fiercer savage, man. See him from Nature rising slow to art! Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state, Laws wise as nature, and as fixed as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw, Entangle justice in her net of law, And right, too rigid, harden into wrong; Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! Great Nature spoke; observant men obeyed; Cities were built, societies were made: Here rose one little state: another near Grew by like means, and joined, through love or fear. Did here the trees with ruddier burdens bend, And there the streams in purer rills descend? What war could ravish, commerce could bestow, And he returned a friend, who came a foe. Converse and love mankind might strongly draw, When love was liberty, and Nature law. Till then, by Nature crowned, each patriarch sate, King, priest, and parent of his growing state; On him, their second providence, they hung, Their law his eye, their oracle his tongue. Till drooping, sickening, dying they began Whom they revered as God to mourn as man: Then, looking up, from sire to sire, explored One great first Father, and that first adored. Or plain tradition that this all begun, Conveyed unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, And simple reason never sought but one: Ere wit oblique had broke that steady light, Man, like his Maker, saw that all was right; To virtue, in the paths of pleasure, trod, And owned a Father when he owned a God. Love all the faith, and all the allegiance then; For Nature knew no right divine in men, No ill could fear in God; and understood A sovereign being but a sovereign good. True faith, true policy, united ran, This was but love of God, and this of man. For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will when many wills rebel? How shall he keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Even kings learned justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. Man, like the generous vine, supported lives; The strength he gains is from the embrace he gives. On their own axis as the planets run, Yet make at once their circle round the sun; So two consistent motions act the soul; And one regards itself, and one the whole. Thus God and Nature linked the general frame, And bade self-love and social be the same. Of the Nature and State of Man with respect to Happiness. False Notions of Happiness, Philosophical and Popular, answered from v. It is the End of all Men, and attainable by all, v. God intends Happiness to be equal; and to be so, it must be social, since all particular Happiness depends on general, and since He governs by general, not particular Laws, v. As it is necessary for Order, and the peace and welfare of Society, that external goods should be unequal, Happiness is not made to consist in these, v. But, notwithstanding that inequality, the balance of Happiness among Mankind is kept even by Providence, by the two Passions of Hope and Fear, v. What the Happiness of Individuals is, as far as is consistent with the constitution of this world; and that the good Man has here the advantage, V. The error of imputing to Virtue what are only the calamities of Nature or of Fortune, v. The folly of expecting that God should alter His general Laws in favour of particulars, v. That we are not judges who are good; but that, whoever they are, they must be happiest, v. That external goods are not the proper rewards, but often inconsistent with, or destructive of Virtue, v. That even these can make no Man happy without Virtue: Instanced in Riches, v. Honours, v. Nobility, v. Greatness, v. Fame, v. Superior Talents, v. With pictures of human Infelicity in Men possessed of them all, v. That Virtue only constitutes a Happiness, whose object is universal, and whose prospect eternal, v. That the perfection of Virtue and Happiness consists in a conformity to the Order of Providence here, and a Resignation to it here and hereafter, v. Good, pleasure, ease, content! Plant of celestial seed! Twined with the wreaths Parnassian laurels yield, Or reaped in iron harvests of the field? Where grows? He was quite explicitly not an "atheist" -- in his writings he tends to equate "Spinozism" and "atheism", about which he has nothing good to say, other than it's not as bad as bad theology. A word of future caution re using links to other Wikipedia articles to characterize his thinking -- Bolingbroke's deism was rather idiosyncratic, and not of the "English deist" variety e. I won't bother with specific references -- the Intro to his "Essays to Pope" referenced below is a pretty good way to get a feel for Bolingbroke's thought. Brainboy's quote from 'Good Sense' gives a flavor of Bolingbroke's attacks on dogmatism of all sorts, but especially of the religious variety. Bolingbroke's approach to religion was, however, something more than garden-variety anti-clericalism or a dismantling of competing claims for theological "truth". Bolingbroke was scathing about how mankind has invented and ab used religion over millennia. His favorite target was mankind's pride -- our incorrigible hubris and urge for self-deification. As he saw it, humans have a tendency either to haul the deity down to their own miserable level or haul themselves up to God's -- that is, either to fashion God in the image of man -- e. Bolingbroke embraced Lockean empiricism, but took it much further in the area of religion than did Locke. For Bolingbroke, with his historical and proto-sociological view of the "evidence," biblical revelation was simply incompatible with reason. Unlike Hume, Bolingbroke thought the complex order of the universe was evidence of a creator. Bolingbroke's "theism", laced heavily with Lockean empiricism and Ciceronian Academic scepticism, was close to a "negative theology" -- the deity is beyond anything man's mind is capable of thinking or imagining. From that position, like Hume, he attacked all metaphysical or theological speculation re the purposes or attributes of God. And like Hume, he adamantly opposed both providential theology especially the Calvinist variety and the "rational religion" of the Newtonians. In mildly anachronistic terms, Bolingbroke wasn't a Cartesian dualist.
Back to Line 8] Paradise Lost, I, Back to Line 10] open Back to Line.