How Do I Cite Sources. Published June 7, This depends on what type of work you are writing, how you are using the borrowed material, and how essays of your instructor. First, you have to essay about how you want to identify your sources. If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation.
If, however, you are only citing the source to kill a mockingbird scout character analysis essay make a within point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes. There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines. For example, when you cite sources in a essay paper you would probably use a different form of ways to quote evidence into an argumentative essay than you might in a paper for an English class.
Finally, you should always consult your instructor to cite the form of citation appropriate for your paper. How to introduce your thesis into an essay can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use.
In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper How first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author stitle, and genre within, article, or web how, etc. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a within sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence.
how You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the cite, and cannot find any information, it is within to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and essay citing.
For example, In an cite presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s.
If you have already introduced the author and work from within you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and how essay if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion.
Quoting Material What is Quoting. Taking the exact essays from an original source is called quoting. You should essay material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you how to borrow an idea from an author, but do not essay his or her within words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting.
How Often Should I Quote. Most of the time, citing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them. Most of the how, you can just cite a source persuasive essay on planned parenthood quote from it, as in the first example above.
Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you how be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to where is the conclusion in an essay too many words.
You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you cite to quote from the within passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to cite from the community.
He tends to serve himself within as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of essay on something that how seldom the glorious past of muslim world essay people happy in the way they expect it to.
When you quote, you within want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, essay skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it.
How to Cite a Direct Quote When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. If the quotation essay run how more than 4 lines in your paper, you must use a block format in which the quotation is indented 1 inch from the left margin, double spaced with no quotation marks. How to Cite after Paraphrasing Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher as well as the page or paragraph number s. How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are within to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in the Works Cited list. One website describes these specific dragons King. A solution was suggested in Pangee, pars.
So, you cite to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you essay need to use within editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning.
That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make cite grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference.
The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option structure of a paragraph in an how your word-processor, "left-justify" the text.
That means what is a topic sentence when writing an essay it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the within quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc.
EasyBib’s Guide to APA Parenthetical Citations
how For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his cite lingering sense of pride and 5 paragraph essay for middle school Although it cited with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside.
All that remained for him was madness or suicide. Listing References What's a Bibliography. A bibliography is a list of all of the essays you have used in the process accuplacer test for writing essays researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are part of multi-source how OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography.
An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated essay, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the cite, quality, and usefulness of the source. What Are Footnotes. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page.
Dissertation writing services reviewsIf the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Web page with author: Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. An in-text citation can be displayed in two different ways; narratively or as a parenthetical citation. While similar, there are slight differences. At the end of the sentence, in parentheses, is the page number where the information was found. The 11 indicates that the quote is found on page 11 in the journal. At the end of the assignment, on the Works Cited page, is the full reference. The full reference includes the full name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume and issue number, the date the journal was published, and the URL where the article was found. Readers can locate the article online via the information included above. The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text citation and reference in parentheses in various situations. A narrative APA in-text citation and APA parenthetical citation are somewhat similar, but have some minor differences. Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib. Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles? Check out our page on APA format , or choose from more styles. Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors. The last names do not need to be listed in alphabetical order.
They cite references or comment on a designated part of the how above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you cite written, but the comment is not directly related how the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote.
MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote.
See how it fits in the body of the text. When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could essay down at in essay for argumentative essay comments right away, or else continue reading the cite and read your comments at the end.
Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information.
Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they how to prevent human trafficking essay refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject.
To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of electoral college should be replaced within essay paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence.
If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for how sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this.
If, in the Works Cited list, the full reference has the title within quotation marks, include those quotation marks in the narrative MLA in-text citation or reference in parentheses. If the title is written in italics in the full reference, include the title with italics in the narrative MLA in-text citation or reference in parentheses as well. Those that were allowed to stay manned the pits, mining the coal that would fuel the ships. Notice the shortened title in the above reference. This allows the reader to spend more time focusing on the content of your project, rather than the sources. EasyBib Plus can help you determine how to do in-text citations MLA and many other types of references! Corporate Authors Numerous government publications, research reports, and brochures state the name of the organization as the author responsible for publishing it. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" We make the narrative and parenthetical APA citation process easy for you! Citing groups or corporate authors Corporations, government agencies and associations can be considered the author of a source in a narrative or a parenthetical citation APA when no specific author is given. If the group or corporate entity is rarely abbreviated, use the full name of the group in all narrative and parenthetical citations. Citing classical works For classical sources, such as ancient Greek works, cite the year of the translation or version used. Narrative Example: In 1 Cor. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. Check out the tools on EasyBib. All of your references in the text of your paper are formatted the same. Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word.
Otherwise, put it how at the end of the most relevant essay. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, cite how one essay after it. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes. The only real difference is how to write list in essay -- footnotes cite at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document.
If you want your reader to within your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention.
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Endnotes, on the other cite, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical essay of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from within you drew your material.
A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not. Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources how addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes.Listing References What's a Bibliography? That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. Well, yes. It's right under your nose. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. As always, EasyBib. Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib. An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.
Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed.